Apart from anthropogenic activity and farming practices that directly influence the density and diversity of insect pest populations, climate change variability is an integral element that many farmers and scientists have only recently recognized. A 29 kDa coat protein (CP) encoded by ORF-6 (nucleotides 4332–5105) encapsidates the major part of ToCV virions whilst the 76 kDa minor coat protein (CPm) encoded by ORF-7 (nucleotides 5111–7120) encapsidates the 5ʹ end and is associated with virion tails and possibly cell-to-cell movement [26]. �Y�0��*-�VA�� endstream endobj 36 0 obj <> endobj 37 0 obj <> endobj 38 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>> endobj 39 0 obj <> endobj 40 0 obj <> endobj 41 0 obj <> endobj 42 0 obj <>stream You can discover details including top producing & exporting countries, real-time market prices, local product varieties, seasonality, production & export volumes, and more. This is the first comprehensive study and full genome sequence of ToCV from South Africa. Methodology, Additionally, we recommend the use of climate/pest phenology models that can provide valuable information on the distribution and population dynamics of whitefly vectors. B: Significant reduction in the yield and fruit size in symptomatic crops, however, fruit remain symptomless. The putative 9 kDa (P9) protein encoded by ORF-5 (nucleotides 4096–4332) has no assigned function. South Korean isolates displayed the highest level of diversity and seem to show this trend more frequently than others (Figs 5 and 6). In the winter region, the season harvesting is now mid-way and there is a presence of infestation (white fly), which will affect total production. Supervision, Similar trends are observed with South Korean isolate HP (RNA-1 groups with Chinese isolates and RNA-2 groups with South Korean isolates) and Spanish isolate 2.5 (RNA-1 groups independently and RNA-2 clusters within the Spanish group). Much of their efforts were further hampered by the absence of skilled government extension workers able to bridge the gap between the technical jargon associated with research and farmers. Approximately 6000 hectares of land are used to grow tomatoes in South Africa during the summer months but production is limited to frost-free areas and greenhouses during winter. Impact of climate variability on tomato production in Limpopo Province, South Africa M. F. Tshiala* and J. M. Olwoch Centre for Environmental Studies and Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. 0000001417 00000 n RNA-1 spanned a total of 8610 nt in length comprising four ORFs, a 303 nt untranslated leader sequence at the 5ʹ end, and a 190 nt non-coding region at the 3ʹend (Fig 4). 0000003779 00000 n The meta-assembly was done using the metaSPAdes pipeline within the de novo assembler: SPAdes version 3.11.1 [19]. More than 50 years ago Duffus [3], first reported a crinivirus infecting greenhouse cultivated cucurbits in California, since then, their emergence in field and greenhouse vegetable crop production has negatively impacted multi-million-dollar agricultural industries throughout the world [2; 4]. A higher level of consistency was observed in the non-coding regions of RNA-2 (Table 5) than in RNA-1 (Table 4). Funding: Our research was funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa (https://www.nrf.ac.za). ORF-2 (7664–8245) encodes a 22 kDa protein (P22) which is a suppressor of gene silencing [25], and ORF-3 (8265–8420) encodes a 6 kDa protein (P6) at the 3ʹ terminus of RNA-1, possessing a transmembrane domain similarly recognized in other crinivirus species [23]. The isolate of ToCV previously reported from South Africa (Nel-186Cr; Accession no. Almost thirty years later, a viral disease that was incorrectly identified as a physiological and nutritional disorder has ‘silently plagued’ tomato fields and greenhouses throughout the world. Is the Subject Area "Tomatoes" applicable to this article? trailer 0000002096 00000 n 0 0000010485 00000 n Both ToCV positive weed species D. stramonium and S. nigrum were symptomatic. The province account for more than 50% of the total area planted to tomatoes. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. The establishment of the exotic Mediterranean whitefly biotypes Q (MED) and B (MEAM1) in South Africa may have displaced indigenous species by means of fitness and resistance to broad-spectrum pesticides that indirectly killed off natural enemies [33]. D. stramonium was the major weed species harboring ToCV in the northern (Limpopo, Gauteng) and the southeastern (Eastern Cape) parts of the country. D: The occurrence of weeds such as Datura stramonium growing along rows of tomato crops exhibiting interveinal leaf chlorosis and stunting in the presence of whiteflies. [27] relate to a study in which the CPm of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) was linked to vector transmission [28]. South Africa is regarded as a leader in the use of tomato production best practices. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to generate the complete genome of ToCV from South Africa. Altitude is represented by varying intensities of grey that ranges from 0 meters above sea level (least intense shade of grey) to 3383 meters above sea level (most intense shade of grey). Only weed species occurring within proximity to field and greenhouse cultivated tomato crops were collected and analyzed. Blast analysis of the consensus sequence matched 98% to ToCV isolates from Sudan (JN411686) and Spain (KJ175084). Conditions for PCR were 95°C for 2 min followed by 35 cycles of 95°C for 25 s; 52°C for 30 s and 72°C for 25 s following a final elongation of 72°C for 10 min. Tomato Production, Tomato Consumption, Tomato Yield, Tomato Acreage… You may also be interested in these Tomato Industry reports, published by private editors UAE Tomato Market - Growth, Trends and Forecast (2020 - 2025) Although multiplex RT-PCR assays were carried out to determine the presence of four crinivirus species (i.e. �$�X���C���PM�h^��,ꠐz疍��2�|�3�#B�r�6:AC�$YQN`�Hsli(�*�Va֍Qn�#K��YR�*�St�. A copper formvar-coated grid was subsequently inverted onto the droplet for 5 min and negatively stained with a 3% potassium phosphotungstate solution for 1 min in the absence of light. However, very limited information on ToCV is available from African countries [12; 13]. were more predominant throughout the areas surveyed; however, significantly higher populations of Trialeurodes sp. Methods to suppress vector populations are a key management strategy for ToCV control as outlined by Tzanetakis et al. The Aztecs of South America used the fruit in their dishes as per evidence. According to Farina et al. Therefore, the forecast is lowered by another 10,000 tonnes to 90,000 tonnes. A sterile scalpel was used to make an incision along the midrib of a fresh symptomatic leaf tissue sample. Importantly, these weeds are distributed throughout much of South Africa and may have significantly contributed to the epidemiology of ToCV. Interestingly, the P4 protein encoded by ORF-1 from ToCR2-186 had the lowest amino acid similarity to the South Korean isolate JJ (Table 5). Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Criniviruses accumulate in the phloem tissue and damage crops by reducing chlorophyll which is essential for plant growth and development. More importantly, stringent policies on the trade and movement of plant material across borders, together with a strategic management approach can significantly reduce the economic impact of ToCV infections throughout the world. PCR was performed in 20 μl volumes using a KAPA2G Fast HotStart ReadyMix PCR kit (KAPA Biosystems, USA) containing 0.75 ng/μl of each primer (Table 2), 30 ng of cDNA and 10 ul of KAPA master mix. Frost areas: sow under cover 6 weeks before last spring frost. Therefore, understanding the role of primary spread is fundamental to the development of effective cultural methods that reduce sources of inoculum. In addition, nucleotide and amino acid similarity profiles among individual ORFs were higher in RNA-2 as compared to RNA-1. By about 500 BC, tomato was already being cultivated in southern Mexico and a few other areas. 0000008160 00000 n Weed species occurring within proximity to field and greenhouse cultivated tomato crops were collected analyzed! 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